e mërkurë, 25 prill 2007

Morarji Ranchhodji Desai

Name: Morarji Ranchhodji Desai

Date of Birth: February 29, 1896 – April 10, 1995

Place of Birth: Gujarat

Morarji Desai was born into a Anavil Brahmin family in Bhadeli, Dis.Valsad, Gujarat. Originally a college-educated civil servant in Gujarat, Desai left the service of the British in 1924 and joined the civil disobedience movement against British rule in India in 1930.Before the Independence of India, he became Mumbai's Home Minister and later was elected Chief Minister of Bombay in 1952. The state was home to Marathi linguistic movements, with Marathi people were fighting for justice i.e. to create separate linguistic state. Considered as a tough leader, Desai was also known for pioneering beliefs and disciplinary in authority and most of the times his radical thinking. By Desai's orders in 1960 a peaceful demonstration by the Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti was fired upon by the police resulting in deaths of 105 demonstrators. Many innocent people were killed in the incidence. A huge public outrage shook the central government. The incident led to the formation of the present State of Maharashtra. As Home Minister, Desai had outlawed any "kissing" scenes in films and theatrical productions. Although a staunch Gandhian, Desai was socially conservative, pro-business, and for free enterprise reforms, as opposed to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's socialistic policies.

Desai led a fractious collage of a coalition government, and thus failed to achieve much owing to continuous wrangling and controversy. With no party in leadership of the coalition, rival groups vied to unseat Desai. Controversial trials of prominent Congress leaders, including Indira Gandhi over Emergency-era abuses tied down the fortunes of his administration. Desai worked to improve relations with neighbour and arch rival Pakistan and restored normal relations with China, for the first time since the 1962 war.

During his time Desai greatly improved relations with Pakistan and Zia-ul-Haq. Diplomatic relations were also re-established with China. His greatest contribution was that his Government renewed people's faith in democracy. His Government undid many amendments made to the constitution during emergency and made it difficult for any future Government to impose National emergency.

In 1979, Charan Singh pulled his BLD out of the Janata alliance, and Desai resigned from office and retired from politics at 83 years old. He lived in the city of Mumbai, and died at the ripe old age of 99. He had been honoured much in his last years as the last great living freedom-fighter of his generation.

Morarji Desai was a strict follower of Mahatma Gandhi's principles and a moralist.

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